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BS in Computer Science   (Complete Course Contents)
BS in Computer Science

Introduction to Computers

(Course Code CS -)


Brief history of computers and their applications. Major components of a computer. Computer and Society. The social impact of computer age. Computers in offices, industry and education. Office automation tools; Word processing, Graphic packages, Databases and Spreadsheets. Current trends, research and future prospects. Legal and moral aspects of Computer Science. Using Internet


Fundamentals of Algorithms

(Course Code CS - )


Using pseudo language as a base, introduction to algorithms, introduction to matrices and their manipulation, searching and sorting algorithm, graphs and related algorithms, trees and related algorithms. Introduction to concepts of iteration and recursion, tracing and timing. Introduction to order of magnitude and algorithm complexity.


 Discrete Structures

(Course Code CS - 301)


Sets. Sequences and functions, Elementary logic. Propositional calculus, Methods of Proof, Mathematical induction, recurrence relation, loop invariants. Relations. Equivalence of Relations and Partitions. Partially ordered sets. Properties of General Relations, Introduction to combinatorics. Basic counting techniques. Elementary Probability, Inclusion-exclusion principle and binomial methods. Counting and partitions. Pigeon hole principle. Algebraic structures; groups and semi-groups.


Introduction to Computer Programming

(Course Code CS - 301)


Programming and problem analysis. Development of basic algorithms. Translation of algorithms into programs. Standard Data Types. Basic control structures. Functions. Structured data types; Arrays, Structures, Pointers and Files. Debugging and testing programmes.


Data Structures


Basic data structures. Static and dynamic data structures. Abstraction and Abstract Data Types (ADT’s). Time and space requirements of various implementations of ADTs. Space/Time trade-Offs. Queues, stacks, trees and graphs. Implementations of tree and graph traversals. Height balanced trees. Heaps. Storage management. Hashing techniques.


Automata Theory

(Course Code CS - 301)


Regular languages, regular grammars, finite-state automate, transducers and relationships among them. Context-tree languages and grammars. Language recognition, parsers. Properties of formal languages. Turing computability and undesirability.


Compiler Construction

(Course Code CS - 301)


Compiler techniques and methodology. Organization of compilers. Lexical and syntax analysis. Parsing techniques. Object code generation and optimization, detection and recovery from errors. Contrast between compilers and interpreters.


Digital logic design

(Course Code CS - 301)


Fundamental of Boolean Algebra. Minimization techniques: algebraic, K-maps, QM methods, etc. Combinational logic circuits with MSI and LSI. Adders, Comparators, Encoders and decoders, multiplexers and demultiplexers, ROM and PLA and PAL implementation. Sequential logic circuits: flip flops, registers, counters, memory timing sequences. Moore and Mealy machine concepts.


Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming

(Course Code CS - 301)


Computer organization. Data and instruction representation. ASCII code Assembler directives versus machine instructions. Keyboard input and screen output. Instruction formats and types. Conversion between ASCII strings and binary numbers. Stack operations. Debugging. Interrupts, Macros. Video output, Disk I/O.


Software Engineering-I

(Course Code CS - 301)


Software development life-cycles and models, System specification, Project control and development of team structures, Software Analysis and Design, Structured Analysis, Functional and object-oriented design, Programming, testing and debugging, validation, maintenance and modifications, Software development tools. Software quality. Process models. Report writing, Introduction to Case Tools.


Operating System Concepts

(Course Code CS - 301)


History and evolution of operating systems. Types of operating systems. Case histories of significant operating systems. Processes, inter-process communication, process co-ordination and synchronisation. Process scheduling. Memory management. File systems. Security and protection. Case operating systems.

Software Engineering-II

Software verification and validation: Techniques are introduced to evaluate software correctness, efficiency, performance and reliability, integration of these techniques into a verification and validation plan. Technical reviews, software testing, program verification, prototyping, and requirement tracing. Attitude of industry toward reliability and performance.

Software Project Management

Software Project management: Manage the development of software products, software estimation, planning, monitoring and controlling, metrics and measurement, process maturity, quality assurance, Software quality standards, human factors in people management, leadership and team building.

Introduction to Computer Architecture

Fundamental of Boolean Algebra. Minimization techniques: algebraic, K-maps, QM methods, etc. Combinational logic circuits with MSI and LSI. Adders, Comparators, Encoders and decoders, multiplexers and demultiplexers, ROM and PLA and PAL implementation. Computer organization: Control unit design, Instruction execution and sequencing of control signals. Hardwired and Micro programmed control. Arithmetic logic unit implementation. Memory organization, memory hierarchy, cache memories - mapping functions and page replacement policies, memory management requirements and virtual memory hardware support.

Computer Architecture

Computer organization: Control unit design, Instruction execution and sequencing of control signals. Hardwired and Micro programmed control. Input-output – Programmed,  Interrupt driven and DMA I/O and interface design. Arithmetic logic unit implementation, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division operations for Integer and Floating point numbers. Memory organization, memory hierarchy, cache memories - mapping functions and page replacement policies, memory management requirements and virtual memory hardware support. Fundamentals of computer communications and error control.

Object Oriented Programming

Introduction to Object Oriented Programming. Objects, Classes and inheritance. The concept of Encapsulation, Polymorphism. Early and late binding. Operator overloading and function overloading. Constructors and Destructors. Friend functions. Inline functions. Virtual functions. Class libraries. Object-oriented software development.

Data Communication

Time and frequency domain concepts, Fourier Transform. Introduction to Analogy and digital signals. A/D conversion, Nyquist sampling and quantization. Introduction to modulation and demodulation. Amplitude modulation, frequency modulation and phase modulation. ON-OFF keying, FSK and PSK. Binary codes for transmission (NRZ, RZ, HDB3, Manchester code), delta modulation. Serial and parallel communication, RS232. Modems.

Telecommunication Systems

Introduction to media, bandwidth and noise. Twisted pair (UTP, STP), coaxial cables (types and specifications), optical fibers (types and losses), Introduction to optical sources and detectors. Microwave links, satellite communication and infrared links. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM), TDM, FDMA, TDMA and CDMA. Switching: circuit and packet switching. Introduction to mobile and cellular communications. Block diagram and current trends.

Numerical Analysis

Mathematical Preliminaries, Solution of Equations in one variable, Interpolation and Polynomial Approximation, Numerical Differentiation and Integration, Initial Value Problems for Ordinary Differential Equations, Direct Methods for Solving Linear Systems, Iterative Techniques in Matrix Algebra, Solution of nonlinear equations. Approximation Theory. Eigenvalues and Eigenvector computation.

Artificial Intelligence

Introduction to Common Lisp. AI classical systems: General Problem Solver, rules, simple search, means-ends analysis. ELIZA, pattern matching, rule based translators, OPS-5. Knowledge Representation: Natural language, rules, productions, predicate logic, semantic networks, frames, objects, scripts. Search: Depth first search, breadth first search, best first search, hill climbing, min-max search, A* search. Symbolic Mathematics: student, solving algebra problems, translating English equations, solving algebraic equations, simplification rules, re-write rules, meta-rules, Macsyma, PRESS, ATLAS. Logic Programming: Resolution, unification, horn-clause logic, Prolog, Prolog programming. Sample case studies of shells and Knowledge Based Systems.

Computer Graphics

Graphics hardware. Fundamental algorithms. Applications of graphics. Interactive graphics programming - graph plotting, windows and clipping, and segmentation. Programming raster display systems, panning and zooming. Raster algorithms and software - Scan-Converting lines, characters and circles. Region filling and clipping. Two and three dimensional imaging geometry and transformations. Curve and surface design, rendering, shading, colour, and animation.

Data base systems

Basic database concepts. Conceptual modelling. Hierarchical, Network and Relational data models. Relational theory and languages. Database Design. Database security and integrity. Query languages: Relational Calculus, Relational Algebra, SQL. Introduction to query processing and optimization. Introduction to concurrency and recovery. Front- end and Back-end Databases.

Computer Networks

Introduction to Computer Networks, network requirements and layered architectures. ISO reference model. Data encoding/framing, error detection and correction, DLL protocols (stop wait & sliding windows), Ethernet and FDDI. Network layer and WANs, IP and routing, cell switching and ATM, bridges, internetworking – the global internet. End to End Protocols, UDP, TCP, and RPC. Application layer, security, the domain name system (DNS), and the WWW protocols.

Network Management

Introduction, Overview of Network operating system, Setting up a network server, Setting up network clients, Network design issues, Network client administration, Workgroup and Domain concepts. System Administration Basics, Network Services, Monitoring and logging of various operating system events, security applications and general system events, Monitoring wide variety of system objects, Diagnosing and Troubleshooting hardware, networking and various operating system services, System configuration including screen display, network services, bindings, protocols, servers, services and system devices, User and group management and services used to manage user access to resources, Remote administration, Management of key processes, Network services administration including e-mail, internet, web and ftp, Heterogeneous network environment, Firewall administration, Controlling access to the machines.

Distributed Database Systems

Advanced data models. Conceptual Database design. Concurrency control techniques. Recovery techniques. Query processing and optimization. Integrity and security. Client-Server architecture. Distributed database systems. Current trends in database systems. Database machines.

Analysis of Algorithms

Advanced algorithms analysis and design techniques. Graph algorithm analysis, algebraic algorithms, NP-completeness, probabilistic and parallel algorithms, intractable problems.

Visual Programming

Introduction to Windows programming, Use of Windows API, MFC Class hierarchy, Class Wizard, Application Wizard and Application Studio, Graphics Device Interface, Menus, document view architecture, Multiple Views, files and achieving mechanisms, converting Windows programs to MFC, Subclassing controls.

Systems Programming

System Programming overview : Application Vs System Programming, System Software, Operating system, Device Drivers, OS Calls. Window System Programming for Intel386 Architecture: 16 bit Vs 32 bit, Programming, 32 bit Flat memory model , Windows Architecture. Virtual Machine (VM)Basics, System Virtual Machine, Portable Executable Format, Ring O Computer, Linear Executable format, Virtual Device Driver (V + D), New Executable format, Module Management, COFF obi format 16 bit. (Unix) other 32-bit O.S Programming for I 386; Unix Binaryble format (ELF), Dynamic shared objects, Unix Kernel Programming (Ring O), Unix Device Architecture (Character & Block Devices), Device Driver Development, Enhancing Unix Kernel.

Multimedia Technologies

Introduction to Multimedia Programming, Scope of Multimedia Programming, convention and trends, Media types used in current applications (including digital video, audio, and graphics). System level issues of performance synchronization, storage and server schemes, dynamic interactivity, hyper linking, multimedia device control, distributed media development and delivery, non- standard media and programming frame works. Introduction to Multi-media Networks.

Web Programming

Overview of Protocols:TCP/IP, HTTP, Overview of 3-tier Architecture, Web Based Applications Architecture. Developing Front End Applications : Front End Development Tools, HTML, DHTML, Scripting (Java Script, Jscript, Vbscript), Java Applets, ActiveX.

Modern Programming Languages

Developing Back End Applications: Java Servlets, CGI/Perl Programming, Cold Fusion, Gateway Interface. Database Connectivity: DBC, ODBC. Performance & Security Issues: ECommerce Application Security, Presentations, Projects.

Theory of Computation

Models of computations: partial recursive functions, Turing machines, alternative models of computing. Basic theory and limitations of computability. Undesirability. Resource-bounded computational complexity, non-determinism, NP-completeness

Theory of Programming Languages

Theory and practice of programming language translation. Languages, grammars and parsing. Lexical, syntactic and semantic analysis. Compile- time error handling. Code optimisation and code generation. Organisation of programming languages including language processors, syntax data types, sequence control, storage management. Comparison of language features from the functional, imperative, logical, and object-oriented paradigms.

Advanced Computer Architecture

Complex instruction set architectures, CISC and RISC Processor implementation, memory hierarchy, pipe-lining, Programming of high-performance supercomputers. Hardware, algorithms, numerical accuracy, compilers. Vector, multiple-instruction multiple-data-stream, and single-instruction single-data- stream machines. Benchmarking techniques. new developments related to single CPU systems.

Advanced Operating Systems

Parallel and distributed operating systems. Load sharing, scheduling, reliability, recovery, memory management. Distributed file systems, distributed agreement, and object- oriented operating systems.

Advanced Computer Networks

Multi-access Communications, Introduction to Layered Network Architecture, Inter Networking, Advanced Topics in flow Control, Congestion Control and rooting, Protocol Performances in Lan and Wan Environment, Network Privacy and Security.

Advanced Software Engineering

System Development using Formal Techniques, Algebraic specification, Abstract model specification, Verification: Proof Systems, Proof Techniques, Proof obligations, Design: Data refinement, operation refinement, Design decomposition. Software Reliability and Metrics. Macro models: productivity, effort. Defect models: Software reliability, Failures and fault, Software reliability modelling. Simple model, Markove modelling, Parameter estimation, Comparison of models.

Supporting Courses

Calculus and Analytic Geometry

Complex Numbers, DeMoivre’s Theorem and its Applications, Simple Cartesian Curves, Functions and Graphs, Symmetrical Properties, Curve Tracing, Limit and Continuity, Differentiation of Functions. Derivative as Slope of Tangent to a Curve and as Rate of Change, Application to Tangent and Normal, Linearization, Maxima/Minima and Point of Inflexion, Taylor and Maclaurin Expansions and their convergence. Integral as Antiderivative, Indefinite Integration of Simple Functions. Methods of Integration: Integration by Substitution, by Parts, and by Partial Fractions, Definite Integral as Limit of a Sum, Application to Area, Arc Length, Volume and Surface of Revolution

Differential Equations

Ordinary Differential Equations of the First Order: Geometrical Considerations, Isoclines, Separable Equations, Equations Reducible to Separable Form, Exact Differential Equations, Integrating Factors, Linear First-Order Differential Equations, Variation of Parameters. Ordinary Linear Differential Equations; Homogeneous Linear Equations of the Second Order, Homogeneous Second-Order Equations with Constant Coefficients, General Solution, Real Roots, Complex Roots, Double Root of the Characteristic Equation, Differential Operators, Cauchy Equation, Homogeneous Linear Equations of Arbitrary Order, Homogeneous Linear Equations of Arbitrary Order with Constant Coefficients, No homogeneous Linear Equations. Modelling of Electrical Circuits. Systems of Differential Equations. Series Solutions of Differential Equations. Partial Differential Equations: Method of Separation of variables, wave, Heat & lap lace equations and their solutions by Fourier series method.

Multivariable Calculus

Functions of Several Variables and Partial Differentiation. Multiple Integrals, Line and Surface Integrals. Green’s and Stoke’s Theorem. Fourier Series: periodic functions, Functions of any period P-2L, Even & odd functions, Half Range expansions, Fourier Transform. Lap lace Transform, Z-Transform.

Linear Algebra

Vectors, Vector Spaces, Matirces & Determinants, Linear Transformations, Operations on matrices, Inner products, Eigenvalues & Eigenvectors. Applications to Systems of Equations and to Geometry

Statistics and Probability

Introduction to Statistics, Descriptive Statistics, Statistics in decision making, Graphical representation of Data Stem-and Lead plot, Box-Cox plots, Histograms and Ogive, measures of central tendencies, dispersion for grouped and ungrouped Data, Moments of frequency distribution; examples with real life, use of Elementary statistical packages for explanatory Data analysis. Counting techniques, definition of probability with classical and relative frequency and subjective approaches, sample space, events, laws of probability. Conditional probability and Bayes theorem with application to Random variable (Discrete and continuous) Binomial, Poisson, Geometric, Negative Binomial Distributions; Exponential Gamma and Normal distributions.

Circuit Theory

Ohm’s law, Kirchoff`s laws, loop and node equations, Cramer`s rule, Network theorems. Introduction to materials (Conductor, Semiconductor, Insulator). Band theory of solids. Types of diode and its applications (Half wave, Full wave rectifier, Clipper, clamper and etc.). Introduction to Transistor. Different configurations of transistors (Common Emitter, Common Collector, Common Base ).


Amplifiers: Low frequency basic amplifiers using BJTs and FETs, biasing of single and multistage circuits. Linear analysis and frequency response of single and multistage amplifier circuits, feedback amplifiers. Class A, B, AB large signal amplifiers, thermal considerations. Small signal analysis. Low voltage Amplifier. Oscillators: Low frequency Oscillator, High frequency Oscillator. 555 timer and its application. Op - amplifier and its application.

Financial Accounting

Introduction to Accounting and its concepts. Recording Business Transactions: Journal, Ledger, Trial Balance. Preparation of Financial Statements: Balance Sheet, Income Statement, Completion of Accounting Cycle: Adjustments, Closing, Work Sheet Accounting for purchase and sales of merchandise. Receivable and payable, Inventories, Payroll Systems. Plant and


Recommended Books

  • Computer Fundamentals by P. K. Sinha

  • Fundamentals of Information Technology, by Deepak Bharihoke

  • Computer’s Today by Donald H. Sanders

  • Computers by Timothy N. Trainer, Diane Krasnewich

  • MS - Office 2000


(Course Code  CS – 302 )

Recommended Books

  • Introduction to algorithms, Thomas H Cormen

  • Introduction to Algorithm, Charless E Eliseron


(course Code  CS - 303)

 Recommended Book

  • Turbo C Programming for the PC by Robert Lafore

  • Let Us C by Yashwant Kanetkar


(course Code  CS - 304)

Recommended Books

  • Object Oriented Programming in C++, by Robert Lafore

  • The Turbo C++ Trilogy by Kris James


(course Code  CS - 305)

 Recommended Books

  • Learn JAVA Now (Microsoft Press) by Stephen R. Davis

  • Programming with Java by John R. Hubbard

  • Guide to Java Programming, Sams net 96, by Peter Norton

  • P. Java2, Sybex Publ, by: Roberts, S., Hellet


(course Code  CS - 306)

 Recommended Books

  • Data Base System by Catherine Ricardo

  • Relational Database by John Carter

  • Database System Concepts by Abraham Silberschatz, Henry F. Korths, S. Sudarshan

  • Database Management System by Rama K

  • ØClient-Server Computing by Robert, D.

CS - 308


Recommended Books

  • Data Structure, Schaum, Outline Series

  • Data Structures, Computer Science Press by Sahni

  • Data Structure & Algorithms by Robert Lafore

  • Data Structure using C & C++ by Yedidyah Langram, Moshej Augensteim, Tennenbaum


(course Code  CS - 310)

 Recommended Books

  • Software Engineering by Roger S. Pressman


(course Code  CS - 311)

 Recommended Books

  • Artificial Intelligence by Stuart J. Russell, Peter Norving

  • Artificial Intelligence Programming with Turbo Prolog, by Terry Heng

  • Artificial Intelligence by Winston, Patrick

  • Artificial Intelligence by John Wiley


(course Code  CS - 312)

Recommended Books

  • Digital Computer Electronics by Malvino – Brown

  • Comp. Org. & Architecture by William Stallings

  • Computer System Architecture by M. Morris Mano

  • Intel Microprocessors by Barry B. Brey

  • Assembly Language by Robert Lafore

  • Assembly Language for the IBM – PC by K. R. Irvine

 CS - 313


 Recommended Books

  • Computer System Architecture by M. Morris Mano

  • Computer: from logic to architecture, by R. Dowsing & F. Woodbam

  • Computer Organization & Architecture, by William Stallings

  • Intel Microprocessor Architecture by Berry B. Brey

 CS – 314

 Recommended Books

  • Operating Systems by Gary Nutt

  • Operating System Concepts by Silberschatz, Galvin

  • Operating System by Andrew S. Tennebaum

  • Operating System by William Stallings

  • Operating System using Linux by Ritche Coolain

  •  Operating System using Unix

 CS - 315

 Recommended Books

  • Set Theory by Seymour Lipsehutz, Schaums Series

  • Introduction to Computer Theory by Daniel I.A. Colen

  • Automata Theory by John Wiley

  • Automata and Formal Languagesby J.E Hopcraft & I.O Ullman

CS - 316


Recommended Books

  • Compiler Construction by William M.Waite

  • Compiler Design Theory by P.M Lewis

  • Compiler design & construction,  by Arther B. Pyster

  • Writing Compilers and Interpreters,   by Ronald Mak

  • The theory & Practice of Compiler Writing,  by Jean-Paul

  • Constructing a Compiler With C. by Fisher


CS - 317


Recommended Books

Interactive Computer Graphics by Gillies & Burger

Computer Graphics Principle  by James D. Foley

Computer Graphics C Version by Donald Hearn, 1997

3D Computer Graphics (3rd Edition) by Alan H. Watt



 Recommended Books

  • Principal of Distibuted Data Base, by M Tamer Ozsu



Recommended BOOKS

  • Software Engineering, by Roger

  • Software Engineering by Ion

CS - 325


Recommended Books:

  • Beginning C#

  • Professional C# Programming

  • Professional ASP.NET



Recommended Books:

Data Structure, Schaum, Outline Series

Data Structures, Computer Science Press by Sahni

Data Structure & Algorithms by Robert Lafore

Data Structure using C & C++ by Yedidyah Langram, Moshej Augensteim, Tennenbaum



Recommended Books

  • AI & Expert System by Robert I. Lervine

IT - 303


Recommended Books

  • Web Designing in a Nutshell

  • Web Page Scripting Techniques

  • Dynamic HTML

  • Practical HTML

  • Mastering HTML

  • HTML 4.0 No Experience Required


IT - 305


 Recommended Books

  • Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 Programmer’s guide

  • Mastering Visual Basic 6.0 by Evangelos Petroutsos

IT– 309


Recommended Books:

  • Data and computer communications, by William Stalungs

  • Network Essentials, by Micro soft Press

  • Interconnected Cisco Network devices(ICND), by Steve Mcquery 

EL - 301


Recommended Books

  • Introductory Circuit Analysis by R.L. Boylestad

  • Basic Electronics by B.Grob

  • Intro. Electronic Devices and Circuits by T. Paynter

  • Electronic Devices and Circuit's by D. Bell

  • Basic Electrons (Solid State) by B.L. Theraja


EL - 302


Recommended Books

  • Digital Computer Electronics by Malvino - Brown

  • Digital Logic and Computer Design by Thomas Richard McCalla

  • Digital System Principal & Application by Ronald J. Tocci

EL - 303


Recommended books:

  • Introductory Circuit Analysis 8/e by R. L Boylestad, Prentice Hall (1997)

  • Basic Electronics 8/e B. Grob, Glencoe McGraw Hill 1998)

MT - 301

Text Box:  


Recommended Books

  • New Additional Mathematics, by Hosoo

 MT - 302


Recommended Books

Discrete Mathematics & its Application by Rasen

Discrete Mathematics by: Richard John Baugh

Discrete Mathematics for Computer Science, by: J. K. Truss, Addison Wesley 1991

Discrete Mathematics , by: Hausner, M Saunders College Publishing 1992

MT - 303


Recommended Books

  • Differential and Integral Calculus, Schaums’ Outline series

  • Thomas Jr.Ross I.Finney Calculus & Analytic Geometry

MT - 304


Solution of Equations in One Variable

Recommended Books

Applied Numerical Analysis by C. F. Gerals

Numerical Method for Engineers & with D.C. Applications by S. C. Chapra and R.P Canale

A First Course in N.C. by S. A. Bhatti

Introduction to Numerical Computation by J. T. King

 MT – 305



  •  Advanced Engineering mathematics, Erwin Kreyzig

MT – 306


Ordinary differential equations of the first order, Geometrical considerations, Isoclines, Separable equations, Equation reducible to separable form, Exact differential equations, Integrating factors, Linear first order differential equations. Variation of parameters, Ordinary linear differential equations, Homogeneous linear equations of the second order,  

Homogeneous second order equations with constant coefficient, General solution, Real roots, Double roots of the characteristics equations, Differential operators, Complex roots, Cauchy equations, Homogeneous linear equations of arbitrary order,

Partial differential equations, Method of separation of variables,

Recommended Books:

  • Advanced Engineering mathematics, Erwin Kreyzig

  • Elementary Differential Equations, H T N Piagio

  • Elementary Differential Equartions, L Kette

MG - 301


Introduction to Accounting and its Concepts

 Accounting, Generally Accepted Accounting Principles “GAAP”(Monetary Unit Principle, Objectivity Principle, Revenue Realization Principle, Matching Principle, Consistency Principle, Disclosure Principle, Total Concepts), Mechanics of an Account (Real and Nominal Account, Explanation using "T" Account, Calculation of Balance of Account, Self Balancing Account), Accounting Equations (Explanation, Rules of Debit & Credit), Forms of Business Organization (Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Corporations)

Recording Business Transactions

Introductions of the Accounting Cycle, Definition, Steps in the Accounting Cycle, Identify Transactions, Analyze Transactions, Record Transactions in General Journal, Details of General Journal:  Definition, Contents (Date, Name of affected Account, Amount of each Debit and Credit, Explanation of Transactions, Identifying numbers of Account), Post to Ledger Account (Procedure of posting), Prepare of Unadjusted Trial balance including (Methods of Making Trial Balance), Prepare Adjusting Entries, Types of Adjusting Entries: a) Adjusting entries for prepayments (Prepaid Expenses, Supplies, Insurance, Deprecations, Unearned Revenues), b) Adjusting Entries for accruals (Accrued Revenues, Accrued Expenses, Accrued Interest, Accrued Salaries, Bad Debts, Write off, Recording after Write off (Total Treatment), Prepare an adjusted Trail Balance, Prepare Financial Statement: a) The Balance Sheet (Formats with example. i.e. account form & report form), b)The Income Statement (Importance of Income Statement, Operating Sections i.e., Sales or   Revenue, Cost of Goods Sold, Selling Expenses, Admin or General Expenses, Non

Operating Sections i.e. Other Revenue or Gains, other Expenses or Loss), c) Prepare Closing Entries (Close the Revenue Account, Close the Expense Account, Close the Income Summary Accounts, close the withdrawal Account), Prepare past closing Trial Balance (Optional), Prepare Revising Entries (Optional)

Work sheet (Definition, Steps in making worksheet i.e., enter the unadjusted Trial Balance, enter the adjustment and prepare the adjusted Trial Balance extends the adjusted trial Balance amount to the Financial Statement Columns), The Cash Flows Statement (Direct Methods of Cash flows, Indirect Methods of Cash flows i.e. Cash flows from Operating Activities, Investing Activities, Financial Activities), Preparation of Cash Book, Bank Reconciliation Statement (Definition, Factors of Difference i.e.,  Deposits in transit outstanding checks, outstanding checks, Bank charges, Bank error, Depositor error, Interest)

Accounting for purchases and sale of Merchandise

Sales Journal (Format with Example), Purchase Journal (Format with Example), Return Journal (Format with Example)

Account Receivable and Account Payable

Recording of Credit Sales (Net Method, Gross Method), Trade Discount, Cash discount (Sales discount, purchase discount), Accounting for uncollectable Accounts, Accounting for Account Payable, Interest Calculations and Treatment

Recommended Books:

  • Modern Accounting, by Mukerjee & Hanif; Vol.- I, Tata McGraw Hill

  • Accounting: The Basis for Business Decision, by Meigs, Williams Haka & Bettner

  • Frank Wood, Business Accounting, Pitman Publishing, London



1.  Introduction

    Nature, Scope and functions, Financial decisions areas, Objectives of financial management, Frame work of financial management  

2.   Working capital management

       Concepts and components, Determination of working requirements, Working capital conversion cycle and identification of business risk, Working capital policies, Working capital ratios analysis, methods of working capital financing, Running finance, cash finance, demand finance,

3. Cash and marketable securities management         

     Objectives and cash, management, rational for holding cash, determinants of cash needs, Cash managements strategies and processes, optional cash balance models, Characteristics of marketable securities, The selection criteria 

4.  Credit Policy

      Optimal credit policy, Credit granting policy, Credit collection policy, Analysis of enhances in credit policy

5.  Financial market

Money market:  Institutional frame work with reference to Pakistan 

Capital markets, Primary vs secondary markets, Organized vs over the counter markets, investment banking and public securities issues, Private placement role of financial markets in economics development with reference to Pakistan

6.  Sources of Finance

Short term financing, Trade credit, Commercial bank loans, Collateral support loans and commercial paper, intermediate financing, Term loans, Loaning term debt, Preferred stock, warrants convertible and options 

7.   The Valuable concept

Key concepts of value, Time value concepts of money, The valuation process, The fundamental valuation models, valuation of securities, Bond, Preferred stock            

8.  Financial Forecasting

Short term financial projections, Cash budget and proforma financial statements, Long term financial projections, The percentage of sales method, Regression analysis

9.   Capital Budgeting

Introduction, nature and process, Estimation and identification of the relevant cash flows, capital budgeting evaluation techniques, capital rationing special case of project cash flow analysis, Cost cutting investments, Setting a bid prices, Replacement analysis

Recommended Books:

  • Financial management Theory and Policy, E F Brigham, Mc Graw Hill, 1985

  • Financial Management for Decision making, Bierman, Mc Graw Hill, 1986

  • Cases in managerial Finance, Crum R L , M C Graw Hill, 1987

MG – 308



Concept of Human Resource Management, Human Resource Challenges & Functions, Philosophical approaches to Human Resource Management

Job Design and Analysis

Overview of job design, Techniques of job design, Job analysis, Collection of job information, Applications of job analysis information

Human Resource Planning & Recruitment

Significance of Human Resource Planning, The planning process, The implementation of program, Recruitment (Evolution / Significance), Constraints and challenges, Recruitment & selection policy issues, Source of recruitment, Selection process & procedure.

Training and Development

Significance, Principles, Training and Evaluation of training & development

Motivation and Reward System

Concept of motivation, Reward systems, Motivation through job design, Motivation through employee participation, Other motivation techniques

Performance Appraisal

Appraisal (Definition and applications), Basic consideration in Appraisal, Appraisal methods, Legal issues for appraisal, Appraisal challenges

Compensation and Services

Objectives / Rationale of Financial compensation, Challenges affecting compensation, Wage criteria, Policy and Principles, Job evaluation and its system, Compensation for Administrators & Professionals, Financial benefits and other services

Work Team and Team Building

Work team (Definition, types & effectiveness), Potential team problems, Effective teamwork through cooperation, trust and cohesiveness, Quality circles & self-management, Team building (Concept, purpose & cycle)


Concept of discipline, Preventive & corrective discipline, Negative & positive approach, Administration of disciplinary action,

Rules & penalties,  Nature of grievances, Grievances procedure, Grievances settlement for employees

Workforce Diversity

Nature of workforce diversity, Dimensions of diversity, The impact of diversity on organization, Management of diversity in organization

Recommended Books

  • Human Resource & Personnel, by William B.Werther & Keith Davis, McGraw

  • Human Resource Management 2nd Edition, by Bernardin & Russell, McGraw Hill.

  • Organizational Behavior (8th Edition), by Fred Luthans, McGraw Hill

  • Organizational Behavior (2nd Edition), by Robert Kreitner & Angelokinicki

HG - 306


Ideology of Pakistan

Creation of Pakistan (Aims & Objectivess), Ideology of Pakistan (Definition, Ideology of Pakistan in the light of the views of Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam)

Historical Perspective

National Reform Movements (Sheikh Sarhandi, Shah Walliullah & afterwards), Educational development (Aligarh, Devband, Nidwah, Anjum Himayat-ul-Islam and other local educational Institutions, Sindh Madersa, Islamia College Peshawar), Constitutional reforms and Muslims separate electorates

Pakistan Movement

Muslim Nationalism in the light of Two Nations Theory, Question of Independence of India and role of Muslims, Separation of Sindh from Muslim league branch, Pakistan Resolution, 1940, 1946 election and transfer of power

The Creation of Pakistan

Initial difficulties and important events

Efforts to Implement Islamic System in Pakistan

Objective Resolution, Islamic Provisions of 1956 / 1962 and 1973 Constitution, Various steps to enforce Shariah, Goal-establishment of perfect Islamic society

The Land of Pakistan

Geographical unit, Location, Geographical Importance, Urban and Rural areas, National Resources, Agriculture, Industries, Manpower (Education)

Pakistan and Islamic World

Relationship with the neighboring countries & Islamic countries

Recommended Books:

  • Pakistan Studies for Degree Classes, Published by Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad

  • Pakistan Study by C. Ishtique

  • Pakistan Study by Gull Shahzad Sarwar






Functional English and Composition

  1. Grammar

  • Principal elements of the sentence

  • Verbs and Barbells

  • Sequence of tenses

  • Passive Voice

  • Reported Speech.

  • Conditionals

  • Phrases & Clauses

  • Modal Auxiliary Verbs

  • Gerunds and Participles.

  • Infinitives

  1. Correct Usage

  • Agreements of the verb with the subject

  • Nouns and Pronouns

  • Adjective and Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Lon junctions

  1. Structures

  •  Verb Patterns , Question Tags

  •  More Structures

  1. Mechanics

  • Proper Usage of Comma

  • Proper Usage of Semicolon

  •  Proper Usage of Colon

  • Proper Usage of Dash

  • Proper Usage of Hyphen

  • Proper Usage of Brackets

  • Proper Usage of Apostrophe.


     5. Written Composition

  •  Paragraph writing, Comprehension,   Precise Writing

  • Expansion of passages, Essay writing,   Paraphrasing

Recommended Books:

  • English Grammar and composition, Wren and martin.

  • English Grammar and composition, John E Worsins.

  • Understanding and using English Grammar, Betty Schram Phus.

  • Exploring the world of English Syed Saadat Hussain Shah.



Introduction to Communication.

Writing Principles

Conciseness, Clarity, Concreteness, Correctness

Consideration , Courtesy, Completeness.

Message Design.

  • Message, Good news Messages, Bad News Messages

  •  Direct Requests, Persuasive Messages, Good Will Messages

  1. Written Communication

  •  Letters, Formats, Parts, Kinds,

  •   Mimes, Circulars, Research Work

  • esearch Reports, Proposal Writing, C.V Writing.

  1.  Oral Communication

  • Speeches, Oral Presentations, Interviewing

  • Meeting, Minutes of Meeting, Agenda, Workshops, Seminars


3.       Visual Appeal

 Documents Design, Graphics


4.       Electronic Communication

The Internet, E-Mail, Web Sites

Recommended Books

  • Technical writing process and product, Sharon J. Gerson, Pearson Education Asia.

  • Effective Business Communication Herta-A-Murphy.

  • Business Communication today Cartland. L. Bovee.



Nature of Psychology, Relationship of Psychology with other social sciences, Psychology as a source of other human sciences, Application of Psychology theories and principles in management sciences


Nature of cognition, Thinking, basic elements of thought, Concepts, Proposition, Images, reasoning and error in reasoning


What is personality, Personality determinants, Heredity, Environment, Situation, Personality traits, The bright five models, The development of personality

Values and Attitudes

Importance, Services, Types, Personal values and ethics, Attitude and consistency

Perception Process

Nature of perception, Sensation, Perception and attention, Perceptual selectivity, Perceptual organization, Attribution, Stereotyping, halo effect

Learning Process

What is learning, Theories of learning, Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning, Social learning, Reinforcement and its schedules, Punishment use and consequences


Definition, The causes, Impacts of stress, Coping strategies with stresses

Recommended Books

  • Introduction to Psychology, Rita I Atkinson, Brace & Co

  • Organizational Behavior, Robert K, Prentice Hall

ST – 301



Mathematical Operations Research Models, Operations Research Techniques, Simulation Modeling

Introduction to Linear Programming

Construction of the LP Model, Graphical LP solution (Solution of a Maximization & Minimization Models, Slack, Surplus and Unrestricted variables)

The Simplex Method

Standard LP Form and its Basic Solutions, Artificial starting solution, Artificial Starting Solution (The M-Method, The Two-Phase Method), Special Cases in Simplex Method Application (Degeneracy, Alternative Optima, Unbounded Solutions, Infeasible Solution)

 Duality and Sensitivity Analysis

Definition of the Dual Problem, Relationship between the Optimal Primal and Dual Solution, Dual Simplex Method, Primal-Dual Computations

Transportation Model and its Variants

Definition of the Transportation Model, Nontraditional Transportation Models, The Transportations Algorithm (Determination of the Starting Solution, Iterative Computations of the Algorithm, Simplex Method Explanation of the Method of Multipliers), The Assignment (The Hungarian Method, Simplex Explanation of the Hungarian Method), The Transshipment Model

Decision Analysis and Games

The Game Theory (Optimal Solution of Two-Person Zero-Sum & Solution of Mixed Strategy Games), CMP and PERT (Network Representation, Critical Path Computations, Construction of the time schedule), Goal Programming (Single objective Vs Multiple goals, A goal programming formulation, A goal programming Algorithm: The weighting method & The preemptive method

Recommended Books

  • Operations Research:  An Introduction (6th Edition), by Hamdy A. Taha

  • undamentals of Operations Research: An Introduction, by Ackoff & Sasieni

  • An introduction to Operations Research, by Saeed Akhter Bhatti

ST – 303


Statistics:  Definition, uses in different disciplines, descriptive and inferential statistics, pop and sample. Types of variable, Description of data by frequency tables and graphs, measures of central tendency, location and dispersion. Moments, skew ness and kurtosis.

Regression and Correlation:  Basic concepts, scatter diagram, simple linear regression model, least square estimates in simple linear regression model, standard error of estimates, coefficient of  correlation and determination.


Types, advantages, sampling and non sampling errors, sampling designs of simple random, stratified, systematic  and cluster sampling(theoretical concept only)  relationship between sample size and standard error.


Basic concepts, counting techniques, Laws of Probability, independence of events, posterior probability and Bays theorem. 

Probability Distribution: Basic concepts, the binomial dist. The Poisson dist., Normal dist.

Statistical Interface: Nature of Statistical Inference, points and interval estimation of parameters. Properties of point estimation confidence interval and its interpretation. Hypothesis testing of mean and difference between two means for large samples.Inference about proportion and difference two proportions, Determination of sample size for estimating means.

Recommended Books:

  • Levin, I.R & D.S. Rubin Statistics for management (7th Ed), Prentice  Hall New Jersey, 1998.

  • Walpole, R.E., Introduction to statistics, 4th Ed., Maeuilllan publishing co,. New York, 1982.

  • Chandhry, S.M. S.Kawal, Introduction Statistical, Ilmi Kitab Khana, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, 1998.

Ø       Chandhry, R.M., Polymer Modern Statistics, Polymer, Urdu Bazar Lahore. 


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